History of programming languages

History of programming languages began with the development of the machine language: the language of logical ones and zeros. Writing in this language was very difficult and tiresome.

Therefore, in the late 40's, to facilitate the work of the first programmers assembler language was created. Instead of binary digits denoting a particular command, short words or abbreviations were written. Programmers call assembler a programming language of the lowest level since it was close to the machine language. Despite the complexity of writing programs and the need for knowledge of the computer units, programs in assembler language are the most efficient and operable.

Soon it became necessary to create new and better programming languages that would resemble natural languages and would allow avoiding working directly with the machine instructions. They became known as high-level languages. Such languages are focused on the description of the algorithms. Therefore they are also called algorithmic languages. Their advantage is greater clarity and independence from a specific computer.

Working with a program, written in the algorithmic language, is simplified by the relative ease of writing, readability and the possibility to correct it. However, the disadvantages are obvious: the extra time and memory needed for translation.

In 1954 the development of the first high-level language compiler began. After 2 years the FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslator) language was created. The language had means that significantly simplified development, but programming in FORTRAN was a difficult task: easily understood in short programs, this language became unreadable when it came to large programs. However, this language was a success and many versions of it were released.

Within a decade, quite a number of new languages were created: Algol (1958) - for writing algorithms composed of separate units; Cobol (1959) - for mass data processing in the domains of management and business; Basic (1965) - to write simple programs and learn the basics of programming. However, only a few of them were structured. Many other specialized languages were also created: Lisp, Prolog, Forth, PL/1, Pascal, etc.

The C language introduced in 1972 was very successful. It combined achievements of many languages and included lots of innovations. A variety of options, structuring and the relative ease of learning allowed it to gain recognition quickly and become one of the major languages.

Although the use of structured programming gave excellent results, it was still difficult to write long and complicated programs. Therefore, a new approach was needed.

In the late '70s and early '80s the foundations of the new object-oriented programming were created. It retained all the best moments of structured programming and acquired a number of new distinctive concepts: encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism. The concept of class as an organized data structure became the basis. OOP allows organizing programs optimally, breaking them down into logical parts, and working with each one separately. Many languages that support the concept of OOP were created: C++, C#, Object Pascal (Delphi), Java, etc.

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