Globalization of Science and Technology

The globalization of progress of science and technology is closely linked to the globalization of higher education which is evidenced, in particular, by the experience of scientific and technological development of the United States.

Before the World War Two there was a system of research and development aimed at dissemination of scientific and technological knowledge according to the needs of a rapidly growing industry. Accordingly, American universities trained large quantities of specialists primarily for industry. At the same time, for the purpose of staffing R & D the United States conducted an active policy of training researchers at leading European universities, as well as involving European scientists to work in U.S. academic institutions. This allowed the U.S. to catch up with Western Europe in scientific and technological development quickly after the war. Japan and then South Korea acted in the same way in the post-war years, training a lot of technicians first to ensure the rapid development of industry, and gradually winding up their own base of fundamental science to the world level for the creation of advanced high-tech industries.

Multinational companies, opening laboratories in other countries usually establish contacts with local research centres and universities, making a certain impact on the national system of science and education. Thus there is the inevitable leakage of scientific and technological information and experts from these countries. On the other hand, local research centres and universities have access to scientific and technological programs of corporations and of course, to their financial and material resources.

Recently, a number of specific trends seem to have appeared in the development of higher education.  The scale of higher education is increasing and it is becoming more widespread.  The number of higher education institutions and students is growing dramatically. In today's world there are more than 14 thousand higher education institutions which comprise almost 100 million students (compared to 13 million in 1960). In industrialized countries, the level of entry of high school graduates to higher education institutions is nearly 60%, while in the U.S. and Canada - more than 80%. The requirements to graduates are increasing sharply, especially to their economic activity and mobility, quality of professional knowledge, proficiency in foreign languages and new information technologies.

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